Since February last year, more than eight million refugees have fled Ukraine, now the largest refugee crisis since the Second World War. Over the same period, more than one million Venezuelans have claimed asylum, and over 211,000 have been recognized as refugees. As we face new displacements, others continue, leaving over one hundred million people forcibly displaced. These events make the work of the World Bank-UNHCR Joint Data Center on Forced Displacement (JDC) more relevant than ever.

The JDC was established in late 2019 to help change the collective approach to forced displacement to one that is bigger, broader, and that lasts longer, matching the scale of the challenge. This requires a different model, one that recognizes protracted displacement as part of an interconnected web of socioeconomic issues, a model that is driven by evidence-informed decisions that are based on robust data. As we look back on the past four years, an observable improvement has occurred in this approach.

Since the creation of the JDC, UNHCR has strengthened its own role as a data-driven organization through its Data Transformation Strategy, and the World Bank has extended some of its surveys and assessments to include forcibly displaced populations. Last December, the High Commissioner’s Dialogue on Protection Challenges focused on the theme of development cooperation, highlighting the JDC’s value as a curator and source of high-quality socioeconomic data and evidence.

That the World Development Report 2023 focuses on migrants and refugees is further testament that the challenge of forced displacement is at the core of the global development agenda, including the data challenge. Ahead of the 2023 Global Refugee Forum, this report is important recognition of the development community’s commitment to leave no one behind, and further evidence of the changing collective response of humanitarian and development partners.

Beyond the direct support to the World Bank and UNHCR, the JDC has worked hard, so that refugees, internally displaced and stateless people are included in national statistics. Censuses and household surveys that include the forcibly displaced produce data that can help governments and humanitarian and development partners create policy and programs that can profoundly affect the lives of these people.

At the end of 2023, when the JDC concludes its first phase, the sum of our efforts will have increased the quality, quantity and accessibility of socioeconomic data on those forced to flee, and their hosts. Although this creates a clearer picture of the situation of forced displacement, our improved understanding also makes the gaps in the data even more apparent; a reminder that there is still work to be done.

Soukeyna Kane


Fragility, Conflict and Violence Group

World Bank

Dominique Hyde


External Relations

United Nations Refugee Agency (UNHCR)

Strengthening Systems & Standards

Collecting high-quality, comparable data is only possible with clear definitions, robust standards and rigorous methodology. This is particularly true of statistics on refugees, internally displaced (IDP) and stateless people, who have been largely excluded from national systems. The JDC continued to invest in the development and implementation of standards and systems that transform the foundation on which data on forcibly displaced populations is produced. In 2022, significant progress has been achieved in:
Refugee Statistics
Another methodological paper prepared by the JDC in 2022 investigates the key challenges of measuring the monetary poverty of refugees and IDPs living in camps. Producing comparable and reliable statistics on poverty in camps is complicated by many issues, including imperfect or missing markets, distorted price patterns, and atypical consumption baskets. The paper takes stock of the experiences of monetary poverty measurement in refugee and IDP camps, documenting the specific challenges of producing comparable consumption aggregates between sub-populations inside and outside camps, and offers a simple framework for practitioners to assess the feasibility of poverty measurement in a camp. The work was presented at the annual meeting of the Expert Group on Poverty Measurement and the International Seminar on Measuring shared prosperity and inclusion, hosted by the UN Statistical Division.
IDP Statistics
The JDC has supported the inclusion of IDPs in a household survey in a number of countries including Burkina Faso, Central African Republic (CAR), Colombia, Djibouti, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Honduras, Iraq, Mozambique, Somalia, and Yemen. The JDC also provided technical support to a national survey in Iraq and the development of a statistical strategy in Somalia, in direct response to requests from these countries’ statistical offices.

EGRISS was also active in identifying and resolving gaps in the statistical frameworks set out in IRRS and IRIS. For instance, there still is no international consensus on which indicators and metrics should be used to measure the cessation of a person’s IDP status. Together with other EGRISS members, the JDC produced an in-depth methodological paper, entitled “Towards a harmonized statistical measure for exits from the stock of internally displaced people”, which tackles this question. This work is essential to the UN Secretary-General’s Action Agenda on Internal Displacement which focuses on solutions to internal displacement in 16 countries. The JDC has engaged with the Special Advisor to the Secretary General on Internal Displacement and his team, advising on the use of the IRIS and socioeconomic data for programming and policy decisions.

Statelessness Statistics
To this day, little is known about the scale of the world’s stateless population due, in part, to a lack of statistical standards and methodologies to calculate statelessness. This is something that the JDC addresses through its support to EGRISS. In 2021 the UN Statistical Commission decided to include statelessness statistics into EGRISS’ mandate. So, in 2022, with financial and technical support from the JDC, EGRISS developed a third set of international recommendations that focused on statelessness statistics. The International Recommendations on Statelessness Statistics (IROSS) addresses the standardization of these statistics by providing clear statistical definitions of stateless people and specifying the data sources that can be used in national statistical systems. The UN Statistical Division organized a global consultation on the draft of IROSS in November 2022, inviting input from National Statistical Offices (NSOs) of all UN Member States.
Statistical Standards
In 2022, the Expert Group on Refugee, IDP and Statelessness Statistics (EGRISS) – with financial and technical contributions from the JDC – continued to advocate for, and support the implementation of, the international recommendations on refugees (IRRS) and IDPs (IRIS). A key milestone was the EGRISS all-members meeting in Addis Ababa in December 2022, where around 100 members came together to discuss the current mandate and the future, beyond 2024. JDC staff presented at a session that summarized EGRISS’ progress, moderated another about statistical inclusion and led the working group that is drafting the compilers’ manual.

Innovative Tools & Data Science

The JDC convened a workshop on November 30 and December 1, 2022, which explored opportunities for and barriers to applying innovative tools and data science to overcome the challenges that forced displacement will present over the next five years. The hybrid sessions brought together 70 specialists from 20 international organizations, governments, think tanks and academia, to explore ideas and collectively brainstorm. The workshop identified immediate opportunities for impactful work in three broad areas:

Enhancement of household survey sampling approaches

There is potential to adapt the algorithmic identification and grouping of households for household survey sampling approaches in forced displacement settings. UNHCR’s new Forced Displacement Survey series is an opportunity to test and optimize this.

Using open data to complement survey-based estimation

Food security was identified as a priority, based on need and feasibility. There is an opportunity to adapt the current estimation frameworks to forced displacement settings to test their operational relevance – for instance, by using open data, including satellite imagery, combined with household survey data, to update socioeconomic indicator estimates between face-to-face survey waves.

Automated discovery and use of forced displacement data

The detection of unstructured text relevant to forced displacement offers promising possibilities, and there are opportunities to apply this tool to non-academic literature (e.g., reports and white papers) as well as to other microdata platforms to understand how socioeconomic microdata informs operations and policy.
















DRC has not had a census since 1984.

Hence, most forcibly displaced people – refugees and internally displaced – are invisible, excluded by a dated sampling frame.

The JDC has supported the development of an innovative sampling tool to survey the socioeconomic status of IDPs, returnees, and host communities in the Grand Kasaï, DRC. This area has experienced multiple displacements and includes returnees and IDPs.

The tool has been applied to the very context where sampling frames are absent or outdated to ensure that forcibly displaced people are captured in the data. The quality of sampling frames in many fragile contexts that have a high incidence of forcibly displaced people can be questionable, as they are not necessarily current, comprehensive and sufficiently informative of the target population. The application is an open-source tool that provides data collecting teams with user-friendly, advanced sampling approaches for forcibly displaced and host populations  requiring minimal programming skills.

Producing Data & Analysis

In 2022, the JDC continued to provide technical and financial support to increase the quality and quantity of socioeconomic data on forcibly displaced people, an investment that is slowly closing the data gaps on them. Key analytical products, drawing from a series of in-person, high-frequency phone surveys, were produced, and a groundbreaking survey series – UNHCR Forced Displacement Survey (FDS) – was initiated. The standardized nature of the FDS will help ease the cost of conducting the surveys while ensuring the quality of data collected. The questions in the FDS will allow respective governments to come up with tailored approaches to address the challenges specific to forcibly displaced people. 

Over half (58%) of the JDC’s data production and analysis is now implemented through NSOs.


Stateless people are often not properly identified in population censuses, perpetuating the lack of socioeconomic data on these people and further marginalizing them by hindering their access to social safety nets, public services and employment opportunities. Since its inception, the JDC has advocated for the statistical inclusion of the stateless people and 2022 marked the inclusion of stateless people in three population censuses.

In 2022, the JDC also produced a series of analytical briefs and reports using microdata to monitor and assess the socioeconomic profile of forcibly displaced people during the COVID-19 pandemic. These analytical pieces will help the governments and development partners better understand and respond to the specific needs and challenges of forcibly displaced people at a time of significant uncertainty precipitated by the COVID-19 pandemic and perpetuated by the war in Ukraine.

Enhancing Responsible Data Access

353 New Datasets in the Raw Internal Data Library


169 Curated and Cleaned Datasets in the UNHCR Microdata Library

6 Capacity Building Activities


Collecting high-quality, comparable data is only possible with clear definitions, robust standards and rigorous methodology. This is particularly true of statistics on refugees, internally displaced (IDP) and stateless people, who have been largely excluded from national systems. The JDC continued to invest in the development and implementation of standards and systems that transform the foundation on which data on forcibly displaced populations is produced. In 2022, significant progress has been achieved:
Due to the highly sensitive nature of microdata on forcibly displaced people, utmost care needs to be taken when processing the data before making it publicly available. This means anonymizing data to minimize the risk of reidentification and using adequate organizational, administrative, physical and technical safeguards and procedures to secure personal data. In 2022, with financial and technical support from the JDC, the Data Curation team in UNHCR’s Global Data Service (GDS) completed the UNHCR Handbook on Microdata Curation – an internal document that details, step-by-step, how to curate a dataset. It includes curation standards, best practices in data anonymization and protection, curation methods that should be followed and the codes to implement them.
The JDC provided support to promote best practices in data curation through technical training workshops, seminars and events, including financial support for a week-long workshop in Bangkok in October 24-28 and refining training materials. This workshop raised awareness of different curation standards and methods and trained UNHCR colleagues how to implement them. A number of other capacity building activities took place globally, regionally and within operations.
To increase the discoverability of these datasets, all datasets that are listed in the UNHCR microdata library (MDL) are cross-listed on the World Bank MDL as well as the Humanitarian Data Exchange (HDX) – an open platform for finding and sharing humanitarian data which is used by 1.5 million people in 233 countries and territories in 2022. Furthermore, with support from the JDC, the World Bank Development Data Group developed an open-source natural language processing tool called nlp4dev that is being used to  discover and tag micro data on forcibly displaced people from different databases, including the World Bank MDL, HDX, and the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS).
In 2022, the JDC supported efforts to measure the usage of data and enhance the user experience of  the UNHCR MDL. By the end of 2022, over 1,126 requests have been approved for licensed use of micro datasets from the UNHCR MDL. The nlp4dev tool offers new functionality to filter the 409,949 documents made publicly accessible by UNHCR, the World Bank, and many other development agencies, and to help identify those documents that made use of UNHCR and World Bank MDLs. Finally, in May 2022, the JDC and the UNHCR GDS conducted a survey to assess user experiences with the UNHCR MDL. The majority of respondents (65 percent) indicated that data quality is excellent and that they have used data to conduct new analysis.

Building Evidence & Sharing Knowledge

Papers published on Forced Displacement in Economics

In 2010, the amount of research on forced displacement produced by economists or other quantitative-oriented scholars increased dramatically.

Until recently, quantitative literature on forced displacement was limited. The majority of academic research in this area was confined to academic disciplines such as legal studies or anthropology.

The increase in research accelerated in 2020 as data on forcibly displaced people became increasingly available, particularly in geographic areas which research has often neglected, and as a result of the many datasets now accessible through the World Bank and UNHCR MDLs.

As more research on forced displacement becomes available, so too does the need for dissemination so that it can be used outside academia, bridging the gap between evidence and policymaking.

In 2015, the European migrant crisis attracted the attention of Western media and the academic community investigating the determinants and impact of forced displacement in Western Europe and other developed countries. Since then, new research programs have emerged that focus on forcibly displaced people, such as the Building Evidence on Forced Displacement Program. The JDC tackles this issue with several activities aimed at diffusing knowledge on forced displacement.

JDC Fellows

The Fellowship program allows young researchers collaborate with JDC team members and develop their research agenda. It supports young scholars and professionals from displaced or host communities in middle- and low-income countriesto work on topics related to forced displacement.




 As an energy specialist, I am passionate about using data and evidence to influence decision-making to help achieve the seventh sustainable development goal (affordable and clean energy). The fellowship offered me the opportunity to interact with key stakeholders in the humanitarian energy system and devise new approaches to solving complex energy issues. I also gained investigation skills and learnt how to devise policy recommendations that improve the well-being of internally displaced people. The seminars and workshops offered by the JDC exposed me to broad areas of knowledge and enabled me to establish a sound understanding of forced displacement. My experience with the JDC was rewarding and I am confident that it will be instrumental in shaping my career path.


              Velma Mukoro, Clean Energy Specialist, Kenya
















2nd Research Conference on Forced Displacement
Organized by the World Bank and Universidad de los Andes (Bogota, Colombia), the Second Research Conference on Forced Displacement took place virtually on January 20-22, 2022.  The Conference was attended by about 500 participants and served as a platform for researchers, practitioners and policymakers to connect so that they could discuss ways to collaborate further. Since its first edition (2020), the Research Conference has aimed to shed light on critical evidence gaps in the literature on forced displacement. The Second Research Conference focused on IDPs, and the evidence presented on internal displacement covered a number of different countries, from Afghanistan, to Mozambique, Syria and Colombia. At the same time, the Conference also helped to identify areas for future research, such as displacement in the Sahel, statelessness, or the displacement of children.
Literature Review Database
The Literature Review Database is another tool that the JDC has devised to foster the uptake of research by a wider audience of stakeholders. The database constitutes the starting point for meta-analysis as it includes summaries of recent reports and research articles on forced displacement, which can be found using keywords or other simple search functions. The Database currently hosts almost 500 summaries, carefully curated and categorized, with 50 additional entries included the database in 2022 alone.
JDC Digest
The Digest represents another effort to improve the accessibility of research. Periodically, the JDC teams up with a researcher to produce a short compendium of the most relevant literature on a specific theme related to forced displacement with the aim of highlighting important insights and their relevance. The two issues published in 2022 were on attitudes towards refugees, and the impact of displacement on housing and urban settlement. The Digest is circulated along with JDC’s newsletter and is accompanied by a summary of the most relevant articles and reports cited in the Digest, curated in collaboration with the author. These summaries are also included on our Literature Review Database.

The Digest on Housing and Shelter was among the documents that informed “Measuring the Impact of Hosting, Protecting, and Assisting Refugees”: a meeting led by UNHCR of member states and other stakeholders where the World Bank and the JDC offered technical inputs.

The Digests have proven to be a popular product among our stakeholders. Taking into account that some Digests have only been out for a limited time, while others were published more than two years ago, the results indicate that the appetite for these publications is not vanishing over time. The increasing trend in monthly downloads suggests that the Digests are becoming more popular over time.

SWITZERLAND. Family reunited after kids who crossed desert were captured in Libya. © UNHCR/Mark Henley
KENYA. An aerial view shows access roads in Kalobeyei village 2 and electricity poles from a solar mini-grid.

Lessons Learned

Despite significant progress across the four strategic objectives, 2022 presented challenges and obstacles that thwarted the timely and smooth implementation of some activities. These challenges taught us several important lessons on how to cope with unexpected events and potential risks that the JDC’s future work poses, and areas for improvement.

Timely implementation entails commitment and engagement.

Several activities have suffered significant delays due to changes in political situations. The Socioeconomic Survey of Refugees in Ethiopia was delayed due to increasing security concerns as well as restructuring within the Government of Ethiopia. Most major data and analytical activities in Burundi – including the planned refugee survey work and finalizing and disseminating the report on the WB-UNHCR Socioeconomic Survey – stalled due to changes in the political environment. Staff turnover at the JDC’s parent organizations – UNHCR and the World Bank – also disrupted and delayed the implementation of several activities. Continued commitment and engagement from the government and the JDC’s parent organizations helps to ensure the timely and smooth implementation of data collection and analytical activities.

Working with National Statistical Offices and building their capacity is fundamental to delivering data that is sustainable, scalable, comparable, and which governments trust.

In 2022, the JDC continued to increase the share of data that is produced with and through NSOs, but this part of our overall work program could be greater. While this kind of data production requires a focus on investment in the national capacity, and can be slower than ad-hoc activities, it comes with a range of advantages. First, the inclusion of forcibly displaced people is more sustainable and scalable, if it is carried out with NSOs – something we have seen in Chad and Uganda. Second, when forcibly displaced people are included in national surveys, it results in data that is fully comparable to national statistics. This is something that data users of the national poverty survey in Chad have noted. Further, the trust that government authorities have in this data is often higher than that which they have in the surveys conducted by international agencies.

Over the past year, the JDC has made an effort to build on its current relationships with NSOs at events such as the EGRISS all-members meeting, the annual meeting of the Expert Group on SDG indicators, the International Forum on Migration Statistics and the annual meeting of the UN Statistical Commission. “Statistical inclusion” became core to the JDC’s work. As part of that effort, the JDC initiated an “innovation lab” together with EGRISS and UNHCR aimed at encouraging governments to formally pledge, under the Global Compact on Refugees, to include forcibly displaced people in their national statistics. Regardless, more needs to be done to consolidate the JDC’s place as a catalyst and partner within the larger effort.

More work needs to be done to put EGRISS international recommendations into action.

A lack of consistency in survey questionnaires, for instance, has made the harmonization of COVID-19 high frequency surveys difficult. Despite significant efforts to standardize the questionnaires of the phone surveys, many of them had to be adjusted and tailored for specific countries. As a result, the cross-national harmonization of COVID-19 high frequency surveys has taken much longer than initially anticipated. It is critical that data collection complies with EGRISS international recommendations so that the quality of data is improved, including that which is supported by the JDC. The CAR 2021 Harmonized Household Living Conditions survey is a good example of how EGRISS international recommendations were integrated into a questionnaire. The JDC also provided technical support to implement the international recommendations in Iraq and Somalia at the request of those governments.

Data does not automatically transform into operations and policy without effective engagement and dissemination.

While 2022 has seen the proliferation of new micro datasets on forcibly displaced people in the UNHCR and World Bank microdata libraries, ensuring that it is available and useful to practitioners and policymaker remains a challenge. It is critical that the JDC to continue its effort to make data and analysis “digestible” for the users, by having it presented in a concise and accessible manner. As one step to make this happen, the JDC will continue to drawing an arc from its initial work to the end use, ensuring that the design of activities is operationally relevant and dissemination is at the core of any new work.

There is still significant potential to develop and use innovative tools and methods to improve the quality and production of data on forced displacement.

The JDC has funded the development and enhancement of innovative tools and methods that improve the quality of microdata on forced displacement. 2022 saw these applied in the Impact Evaluation of an Integrated Safety Net for Refugees and Host Communities in the Republic of Congo (KoBo Toolbox); the Socioeconomic Survey in the Grand Kasaï, DRC (gridded sampling tool); the assessment and improvement of geospatial data in displacement settings in CAR, Chad and DRC (geospatial data) and the identification of key data gaps in the existing micro datasets on forcibly displaced people (automated text analysis) and others. The JDC will need to continue its investment in innovation and data science to enhance and improve data production in displacement settings.

Focus needs to be placed on scale and sustainability.

As many of the activities committed under the JDC’s 2021-2023 Strategy approach their completion, the focus needs to be on sustainability. It is important to ensure that JDC funded activities are “owned” by NSOs and the relevant units and departments within the parent organizations. In this respect, it is promising to see that UNHCR has now established the GDS, which takes ownership of the curation and processing of microdata. A small number of host country statistical offices have also begun to expand their national Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, Demographic and Health Surveys, labour force surveys or integrated poverty surveys to also include refugees and IDPs. This will provide governments with invaluable data and insights with which to support forcibly displaced people and institutionalize the work of the JDC.


2022 marked the fruition of many activities that the JDC has supported over the past three years. Despite this, persistent data and evidence gaps remain. As continued investment and technical leadership is needed to fill them, it is critical that the JDC takes stock of what has been achieved and uses these lessons to inform its future strategy. To this end, a Mid-Term Review was commissioned by the Management Committee in early 2022, the purpose of which was to ensure the JDC’s continued relevance by assessing its mission and objectives, as well as the effectiveness of its organizational structure and business model. Due for completion early in 2023, the review will provide a set of actionable recommendations to inform JDC’s work in 2024-27.


The JDC would like to thank the individuals, organizations, governments, and NSOs who collaborated with and supported the organization in achieving its objectives, particularly, the guidance provided by our Management Committee and Strategic Advisory Council. The JDC would also like to extend its appreciation to its partners for their generous financial contributions in 2022: the Government of Denmark, represented by the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs; the European Union, represented by the Directorate-General for International Partnerships at the European Commission; and the United States Government, represented by the U.S. Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration. The JDC also benefits from support by the IKEA and Hilton Foundations.