Venezuelans in Peru
individuals have migrated since 2018
Venezuelans as a proportion of the national population
want to stay
Data: R4V (Venezuela migration, 2023) and World Bank (host country population, 2022)
Most Venezuelans in Peru are of prime working age (25 to 54 years old) and have significant potential to contribute the labor force and economy. However, there are challenges to unlocking these benefits and better integrating Venezuelans into the Peruvian labor market.
Venezuelans have, on average, more years of education but earn less than Peruvians. They are also more likely to work in the informal labor market. A Development Opportunity points to productivity loss from labor misallocation in Peru, due to the fact that migrants are often overqualified for their jobs. The report proposes that access to the labor market is provided at the level of Venezuelans’ qualifications through accreditation programs and programs aimed at improving the match between jobs and potential candidates.
While 30% of Venezuelans have tertiary education, only 21% of Peruvians do. Nevertheless, Venezuelans are predominantly engaged in low-productivity jobs — 40% are in elementary positions and 26% in sales and services. Venezuelans with a tertiary education have significantly lower earnings compared to native workers.
Some high-skilled Venezuelans work in the metropolitan region for digital platforms, such as delivery services. It is estimated that 53% of delivery workers are Venezuelans. Digital platforms are an important source of income for Venezuelans, yet they also render them more vulnerable to the volatility of this sector.
One-third of Venezuelans in Peru have been discriminated against. The incidence of discrimination increases as their level of education increases, ranging from 30% among those with primary education to 38% for those with tertiary education.
Although Peru implemented policies to welcome migrants in the early stages of the Venezuelan crisis, it tightened its immigration policy after a rapid surge in inflows. Since 2020, Peruvian authorities have implemented several policies to reduce the number of people entering the country.
Barriers to education and healthcare persist, which affects prospects for future generations. Healthcare for Venezuelans in Peru is largely confined to emergency services, and then, only for certain groups. Those with a special residency cards can utilize the Peruvian health system for other health needs. Consequently, few Venezuelans seek healthcare in Peru.
Although Peru has made progress towards universal education, Venezuelan migrants struggle to enrol children in schools. Official data estimates that 77% of migrant minors are irregular. Lack of documentation, associated expenses, and limited consular services hinder Venezuelan children’s access to education in Peru. To address this, in 2023, the Peruvian government permitted guardians to request regular migratory status for minors, even if the guardians’ status is irregular.